Light delights us. In paintings is easy to see, but the development of it through history is anything but simple. It has been the focus of some of the world’s greatest artists. It is worthwhile to get a glimpse of some of the innovative artworks that advanced light in painting.
Raphael, Deliverance of Saint Peter, 1514
Light in a painting is tied primarily to the form of the objects. Also, it has a yin/yang relationship to shadow. No shadow, no light. An artist will use light and shadow to mold forms.
These horses’ heads from the Chauvet Caves in France are a great example of forming with light and shadow. It is awe-inspiring that this artist had this knowledge 30,000 years ago.
Horses’ Heads, Chauvet Caves, 30,000 b.c.
In contrast to the Horses’ Heads, this flat image of a Minoan fisherman is without light. It is a fresco painting from Santorini, 1650-1500 b.c. The images are recognizable by their blocked-out silhouettes (like a cardboard cut-out).
I really like the colors and the balanced silhouettes of this image, but it lacks the substance of light and form.
Akrotiri-Santorini 1650-1500 b.c.
There are few examples of ancient Greek painting. Here is one faded example from the tomb site of Alexander the Great’s immediate family.
The addition of light complicates visual imagery. It catapults a flat image into a 3D universe. It imbues the image with more weight and realism–closer to how we see real objects.
Here we can make out shadows molding the mouths, eyes, chins, and undersides of their arms.
Nikomakos, Rape of Persephone by Hades, 350 b.c. Ancient Aigai.
In these Pompeii frescos in Italy, we get some idea of what might have been classical Greek painting.
The environment is bathed in light. Notice the hierarchy, a key component in creating light, from the bright light behind the two woman and the more muted light between the bull’s legs.
Also, notice the light’s sweep up the half-naked woman’s torso.
Europa and the Bull, 1st C. AD, Pompeii
This is a great example of the artist using light to bring out the form of anatomy. Notice the flicks of highlight along the man’s arm. And the flow of light along the woman’s torso.
Lovers, 1st C. AD, Pompeii The Northern
Renaissance artists’ works are noted for attention to extravagant details. In The Arnoflini Portrait below notice the tour de force of exquisite details. The painting is very neatly broken down to each object’s color group: brown for the fur of the coat and dog; pale flesh tone for the people; red, green, and purple for the clothes.
In this da Vinci we have one light source, unlike the van Eyck work above.
Da Vinci, Lady with an Ermine, 1482-5
Here is an important, though a subtle difference in developing light in painting. Notice the women’s shoulders. Van Eyck used just enough light to give shape to the green cloth and white scarf. In contrast to that, da Vinci cloaked a sheen of light over both her flesh and cloth of her shoulder.
Raphael makes a great breakthrough with the light in The Dilerverence of St. Peter below. He takes the idea of the halo, yet he wants to make it feel real. Behind the angel is glowing light, as if the light was coming from the end of a tunnel.
An interesting phenomenon is the transparency of the angel and it’s wing tips. Often I have shown students a fact of how translucency works. You need to have a bright window in a room full of shadow. Then you hold up your finger: half of it against the light and the other half against the shadow. Then you squint looking at your finger. You will see a very delicate border dividing your finger, making it literally transparent–exactly like the angel’s wings here.
Raphael, Deliverance of Saint Peter, 1514
The flatness of this symbolic halo is a good contrast to the realism of the Raphael. Actually, there is some effect of light on his forehead, collar, and hand, but the light is by no means consistent.
St. Nicholas, early 14th century
Caravaggio went after light with a vengeance. He dramatically contrasted light adjacent to dark. Notice the boy’s eye with its startling brilliant highlight and almost black shadow.
In exploring these high contrasts, Caravaggio ran into some spatial difficulties–Goliath’s head doesn’t feel like it is a yard in front of David. Rather, it rests on the same plane. Contrast with the Rembrandt below.
Caravaggio, David with the Head of Goliath, 1610
On the other side of Europe, Rembrandt was taking light further than any previous artist. Rembrandt spotlighted the people and things in his paintings. He used light to highlight the things he wanted us to focus on. But he also solved the difficult problem of spatial relationships. It is quite simple for us to track the spatial relationships of all the people in his painting. Contrast that with the David above.
It is interesting that The Night Watch setup is similar to the van Eyck couple portrait. In both paintings, there are two light sources, one from behind us left, and from further back left.
Rembrandt, The Night Watch, 1642
The key difference between the two paintings is Van Eyck used light to heighten all the details, while Rembrandt stylized the light, making details subservient to the light.
It is impossible to talk about light in painting and not include Vermeer. Radically different than Rembrandt in style, Vermeer pushed the envelope of how far one could realistically perceive light.
I could spend volumes in comparing nuances of light effects here. Let me just point out one for now.
Just above her head there is an extremely subtle pink tint, somewhat in the shape of a rectangle. It is probably the cast light formed by the shape of the window. Lower right, behind her body, are several, increasing subtle shifts of cooler colors than the pink tint above.
Vermeer’s eye probably sees more nuanced light shifts than any other artist, before or since.
This is part 1 in the innovation series on light. In part 2 I will show how artists developed the light based on complimentary colors.
New York, September 24, 2007
Frame of References:
Bitler, Nicole. Leonardo da Vinci’s Study of Light and Optics: A Synthesis of Fields in The Last Supper, pdf https://ojs.stanford.edu/ojs/index.php/intersect/article/view/239
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da. One of the greatest painters of light effects: https://www.wikiart.org/en/caravaggio/
Chauvet Caves. One of the most famous prehistoric rock art sites, all the images but one are dated between 30,000 and 33,000 years ago. https://bradshawfoundation.com/chauvet/
Raphael Sanzio da Urbino. Raphael completed the trio of artists of High Renaissance with Michelangelo and da Vinci. One incredible of his paintings is The School of Athens, see this and over 180 works: https://www.wikiart.org/en/raphael
Renault, Mary. The Bull from the Sea, not related to the history of light in art, it is an excellent historical novel about King of Athens, Theseus, and his early adventure in Crete at its highest point of Minoan Civilization. https://www.amazon.com/Bull-Sea-Mary-Renault/dp/0394715047
Vermeer, Johannes. He elevated direct perception of light in art to perhaps the highest level yet, at least in scientific realistic way. He made few artworks, we know of about 40: https://www.wikiart.org/en/johannes-vermeer
Western Art History Timeline. A quick look at key art movements: https://www.invaluable.com/blog/art-history-timeline/